Localising new-build housing

Architect and writer Clive Aslet (left) writes about a development of 4,000 houses on 500 acres – houses, small apartment blocks, schools, surgeries, mixed income housing, shops, business premises and leisure facilities and green spaces – on the edge of Newquay. There is an emphasis on local labour, materials and procurement.

“How society chooses to house people is every bit as important as how it chooses to feed people,” says Tim Gray, estate surveyor and chief of operations “If you can get those two things right, you will be happier, healthier and better able to engage socially. the ambition is to build community and engender civic pride, to live so that you can meet your daily needs conveniently on foot, not to differentiate between homes of different tenures, and to be connected socially with the adjacent settlements — this should provide good foundations for deciding how the nation should build homes in the future. There really is an alternative.”

Aslet describes a number of features:

  • a core commitment to spend the money in Cornwall, using local labour and materials and a pattern book with typical Cornish vernacular details, e.g. roofs are made from Cornish slate from a nearby quarry
  • The plans include setting up a town farm in some listed buildings to provide food for residents of the development.
  • There will be mixed-use neighbourhoods, in which the car is subservient to the pedestrian.
  • There will be a community orchard, allotments and ‘edible gardens’.
  • Low-cost rented homes are scattered among the more expensive owner-occupied ones 30% of the housing is affordable.

The area has been given a new lease of life. The quarry provides jobs, and so do the builders responsible for the work — all firms are from the southwest, whose work not only requires local labour, but also helps to establish local supply chains. They form what Gray calls a “consortium” a method that ensures the architecture is practical and appropriate for the local market.

Newquay is poor and homes are particularly needed by young people. Judging from conversations with a number of people in their twenties and thirties and young families met in the area, they like the designs, the edible gardens (herbs and fruit bushes are planted next to houses), espaliered pear trees and bee bricks (bricks with holes laid into the eaves of houses to welcome threatened bee populations), they’re all part of the philosophy — as well as local style, local materials and local employment . . . local food.

This is symbolised by the community orchard. seven acres of land that has been turned into allotments. “Trespassers will be composted”, reads one of the signs. Orchard and allotments are visible signs of the local food web that is being encouraged. They’re also somewhere that people from the new housing can meet long-time Newquay residents.

As Tim Gray said, this should provide a good foundation for deciding how the nation should build homes in the future. There really is an alternative: Aslet sees it as the beginning of a movement that made Britain better to live in.

 

 

 

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Corbyn focusses on decentralisation: localising energy and transport

corbyn-eee-manifestoJeremy Corbyn has launched an environmental manifesto that outlines plans for the UK to achieve 65% of energy from renewable sources by 2030 – without fracking.

Corbyn proposes to put cities, councils, devolved governments and communities at the heart of an efficient, decentralised energy system by promoting a shift to electric and hydrogen buses and cars; a network of low-emission zones and cycling with safe cycle lanes and hire schemes in every town and city.

The manifesto places social enterprises, including not-for-profits and co-ops at the heart of Corbyn’s plans for a “publicly run, locally accountable energy system”.

A “publicly run, locally accountable energy system”.

In a speech in Nottingham, the Labour leader said, “We want Britain to be the world’s leading producer of renewable technology. To achieve this, we will accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy, and drive the expansion of the green industries and jobs of the future, using our National Investment Bank to invest in public and community-owned renewable energy. This will deliver clean energy and curb energy bill rises for households; an energy policy for the 60 million, not the Big 6 energy companies.”

He has promised to promote over a thousand local energy companies in the next parliament and legislate to give community energy co-operatives the right to sell energy directly to the communities they serve.

Housing

It would launch a National Home Insulation plan to insulate at least 4 million homes and phase out coal-fired power by 2025. The Labour leader estimates over 300,000 jobs would be created in the renewables sector as a result of these measures.

corbyn-eee-graphic

Labour would reinstate the department for energy and climate change in its first month of going back into government, as part of its plan to rebuild and transform Britain, “so that no-one and no community is left behind,” he said at the event in Nottingham.

Jeremy Corbyn also encourages the British public to take action as individuals to help to meet the Paris climate agreement. He proposes to use the precautionary principle to protect the environment and people from harm – not a pay-to-pollute approach allowing the richest corporations and individuals to wreck our planet.

 

 

 

Locality: community-led organisations, working together to help neighbourhoods thrive.

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Locality is a national network of enterprising community-led organisations, working together to help neighbourhoods thrive.

It is joining forces with the Building and Social Housing Foundation to spotlight new community-led housing developments by running a series of ‘See for Yourself’ events.

Each visit in the programme will concentrate on a different innovative approach put forward by local communities, including:

  • modular-build houses
  • ultra-low energy developments
  • derelict property refurbishment
  • the re-use of unlikely sites such as office blocks.

granby 4 streetsLiverpool’s Granby 4 Streets’ regeneration project (above) is halfway to completion

See more about the visits to Leeds, Hull, Glasgow, Pontypool, Newport, Liverpool, Leicester, Hastings and Totnes at: http://locality.org.uk/projects/communityled-housing/open-days/#sthash.UuHfHaSJ.dpuf

 

 

Could Brummie bonds fund house building?

john clancyCity councillor John Clancy, who once worked in the venture capital market, explains in a Chamberlain Files article,  [accessed via the Brummie], that  ‘Brummie bonds’ can provide much needed investment and kick-start building by local councils and housing associations across Birmingham.

Some readers will remember that the Brummie Bonds concept was incorporated in the 2003 People’s Pensions Proposal, informally presented to MPs, an MEP and NGOs by a London colleague Colin Hines (co-founder of Localise West Midlands) with co-authors, accountant Richard Murphy (now of Tax Justice fame) and MP Alan Simpson. Read on here.

In October 2004, David Bell’s article on the subject in the Post: Buy a share in Brum pointed out that bond issues are used to raise finance by federal states in Germany and many other local authorities around the world, but although English councils have powers to issue bonds none are believed to have used them.

John Clancy’s vision is of a 40-ward investment strategy. An access-all-areas Brummie Bond investment issue is needed and he records that the Labour Party’s policy announcement last weekend on the Future Homes Fund is effectively the revival of the concept of housing bonds itself:

  • Anyone saving for a house deposit can put it in an ISA to which the Government would contribute 20%. The Labour Party is proposing that those funds would be earmarked for new house building. The banks would be directed to invest these assets into housing bonds.
  • Local councils and housing associations would issue bonds into which the UK’s banks would be required to invest. This would keep investment by UK citizens in the UK and, effectively, into local and regional investment.
  • If local developers are sitting on a land bank where planning permission for housing is already given, then the “use it or lose it” principle would have to apply. If there is capital ready and willing to buy and build from housing bonds, then so be it. Positive, active creative capital will need to push out dormant, destructive, delayed capital.

There is now a growing consensus that investing in UK housing is the best investment strategy for the health and wealth of the funds. They provide healthy returns on a risk adjusted basis to the pension funds.

A recent analysis by TradeRisks.com recommends hard-nosed investors (especially pension funds) to go into social housing bonds rather than corporate bonds, and that now is the best time to do so. Sixteen of the biggest 60 Housing Associations have now issued own-name public housing bonds. It’s time for local councils to do the same.

Government has relaxed the rules on investment and recognised the key part that local government pension schemes have to play in regeneration, infrastructure and ‘green’ investments. Cllr Clancy says that if any local government pension fund has not laid out its 30% housing and infrastructure asset investment strategy, we should ask why it has not done so. He ends:

It’s time for Bonds: Brummie Bonds.

Let’s build.

America: six big shifts towards an economy that distributes economic benefits widely and minimizes damage to the environment

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sarah van gelderSarah van Gelder (right) is co-founder and executive editor of YES! Magazine which feature powerful ideas and practical actions towards a more just and sustainable world. She has co-founded a cohousing community, organized tenants and built a produce cooperative, providing local, sustainably grown whole foods, at affordable prices, to residents who want local, sustainable food sourced within walking distance of their homes.

Sarah points out that, in America as in Britain, corporations and the wealthy are recovering well after the collapse of the global economy in 2008. This is confirmed by Nomi Prins, (left, a senior fellow at America’s Demos) who has worked as a managing director at Goldman-Sachs, a Senior Managing Director at Bear Stearns and senior strategist at Lehman Brothers.

nomi prinsShe records that corporate profits have jumped back to near-historical highs, and banks are hoarding an extra $1 trillion in reserve at the Fed. However, Ms Prins points out that over 90% of the population have “an overhang of debt, stagnant wages and inferior jobs, all exacerbating income inequality”.

Sarah asserts that many people are losing patience with the corporate economy—and turning to initiatives that build a new economy. Grassroots groups, local entrepreneurs and broad-based coalitions are building the foundations of an economy that distributes economic benefits widely and minimizes damage to the environment. She lists six big shifts (the links are very well worth following):

  1. Local food, once a tiny niche market, has gone mainstream. The growing, processing, and marketing of local foods is booming in many areas, including the eastern U.S., abandoned neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan and towns and cities throughout the country. Via farmers markets and direct purchases from growers, the food travels quickly from farm to table, keeping it fresh and nutritious. Local food isn’t always greener, but a local diet does reduce emissions from food transportation, support local jobs, and connect people to their neighbors and local environment.
  1. More workers own their jobs. Worker-owned co-ops have been spreading, particularly since the recession. While they, like all businesses, can struggle, they also can help keep good jobs stable and keep money in the community. In the Bronx in New York City, the 2,300 employees who work at Cooperative Home Health Care Associates get better pay, more job security, and more training for career advancement than their counterparts at competing firms. In Chicago, workers at a manufacturing plant who were laid off when the plant was shut down bought out the factory and now operate it as New Era Window and Doors. The most famous example of worker ownership, however, is in the Basque region of Spain, which has more than 70,000 worker-owners in more than 200 enterprises. Labor unions and community activists in the United States are beginning to emulate the success of Spain’s Mondragon Cooperatives, especially in hard-hit rust belt regions.

karma kitchen

  1. The economy goes DIY. Making, DIY, and sharing culture: ethic of reuse and no waste, a bias for local and small-scale, and a preference for generosity is blossoming. Young people especially are building tiny houses and writing open source software. Online platforms like Couchsurfing let people share their homes with travelers. Others have started “pay-it-forward” restaurants where you pay not for your own meal, but for the person behind you in the line.
  1. Money grows more responsible. Campaigners in 22 states aim to open government-owned banks at the state, county or municipal level to finance local economies and keep profits nearby. The latest trend, in light of the threat of climate disruption, is to divest from holdings in coal, oil, and gas companies. To date, more than 800 global investors have pledged to divest over $50 billion. Redirecting assets from big corporations and Wall Street to sustainable local enterprises is providing investment capital needed to fuel the new economy.
  1. clt berkshiresSome homes stay affordable. A small percentage of people are living in community land trust homes – affordable by design – and foreclosure rates were one-tenth of the national level. This success is causing cities and advocates for the poor elsewhere to look at this as a model of permanently affordable housing. Keeping basic necessities, like our homes, out of the speculative market helps stabilize the economy and averts the disruption and impoverishment that results from predatory real estate and lending practices.
  1. Innovation emerges to protect our resources. The new economy draws on the wealth of common assets, including fresh water, the Internet, green spaces in our cities, and the storehouse of knowledge we inherit from previous generations.

It does so in a way that neither depletes them nor excludes others. That means protecting water quality, keeping the Internet open, protecting the stability of the climate, and ensuring access to a good education—for ourselves and for those not yet born.

The new economy is being built on grassroots-led, pragmatic actions that people around the U.S. and around the world are taking to create widely shared, sustainable prosperity.

Read Sarah’s article here: http://www.yesmagazine.org/new-economy/six-ways-the-us-is-building-a-people-powered-economy

 

Co-operatives: raising and developing the weakest part of our local communities and civil society?

The roots of the co-operative movement in Italy go back to 19th century workers’ associations, with credit services, agricultural and building co-ops forming an important part of the overall economy. There are more than 20, 000 cooperatives, including housing and banking movements, with over 3 million members.

In 2011 Jeffrey Hollander asserted that the success of worker cooperative models in Italy and Spain presents US & UK with a compelling model for building a new, sustainable economy: 

italian co-ops text pics

An alternative to the “throw-away culture created by the powers that control the economic and financial policies of the globalized world”

Reuters reports that Pope Francis, speaking to members of the Confederation of Italian Co-operatives, condemned economic systems that “suffocate hope” and a globalised culture that treated its employees as disposable. New models and methods are needed that offer an alternative to the “throw-away culture created by the powers that control the economic and financial policies of the globalized world.”

He adds:

“Co-operatives should continue to be the motor that raises and develops the weakest part of our local communities and civil society”

The Pope said that the establishment of more co-operatives could help to solve crises of unemployment among young people and offer women jobs with a work-life balance that enabled them to care for their families.

Finally he called for money to be ‘at the service of life, managed in the right way by real co-operatives where capital does not command men but men command capital.

Adam Smith’s invisible hand and visible hands in Birmingham

Birmingham has long been a city with some of the highest levels of deprivation in western Europe, living with fears for the future as the loss of big manufacturing becomes apparently permanent.

However, within living memory the city became the UK’s second city, and achieved an economic peak during the 1920s and 1930s – times that for Manchester and most American cities were very tough.

Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin were major reasons for Birmingham’s success. Theirs is a story that contradicts that of Michael Heseltine, who conjures up illusions about a ‘buccaneering’   entrepreneurial past. A story that underpinned his now clearly failed attempt to forge a common agenda between provincial English business (centered on Local Enterprise Partnerships) and the Downing St of today.

appeasementThe Appeasement of Adolf Hitler has cast a shadow over proper understanding of the era of Birmingham’s expansion. This appeasement occurred before the suburbs where most Birmingham people now live, had come to need their original paintwork renewing.

Local historians have been less effected by such political and  obsuring shadows. And one can find glimpses  in local history of  how Baldwin and Chamberlain and their people worked.

For much of the interwar period one or both of them were tenants in Downing Street. Either as Prime Minister or as Chancellor.

Business alliance

Both were elected from the West Midlands, but there was more to it than that. Kenrick coverTheir families had since 1887 both been in alliance with the Midland’s premier business family – the Kenricks.

As the First World War ended, Kenricks were at the heart of the trade ( the cartels) that supplied baths, cisterns and the metal components that would profit from any house building boom. The Baldwins were major shareholders in Kenricks since selling out their factories in Stourport-upon-Severn.

Neville Chamberlain’s mother was a Kenrick. And her early death meant that he spent most of his childhood at the Kenrick’s main family home – Berrow Court, at Edgbaston in Birmingham.

Berrow CourtAlthough Neville ran a firm of his own, that boasted of being an ‘Admiralty Supplier’ on its letterhead, around  1913 he brought in about a quarter of his income from a second job -chairing a Kenrick owned company.  This company,  called Elliots, made the copper for the plumbing and wiring that building now required, and was the base material for the bulk of Birmingham firms who were then geared towards home-making goods, rather than the automotive bits of  later decades. Indeed as the base for Ford in the UK,   Manchester could until 1929 better claim to be the UK Automotive city.

Homes for Heroes

That Neville Chamberlain would  be the most important figure behind the building of the interwar suburbs, should be seen against this industrial  background. For much of the interwar years he was acting for a cabinet led by Stanley Baldwin.Baldwin

Birmingham was first out of the stocks with building ‘homes fit for heros’ in 1919.  Manchester and Glasgow, Birmingham’s main rivals trailed. Shipbuilding and textiles did not sniff such profit in housing. Nor had either been prepared for a house building campaign.  Manchester did not have much room to expand, being hemmed in by industrial townships like Oldham and Salford in every direction except southwards into Cheshire. Manchester would not get round to buying up land until the end of the 1920s. Neville would be the minister who would assist the setting up of a Manchester Regional Plan in 1927, for the neighbouring councils to co-operate in Manchester’s overspill.

Building the suburbs

Birmingham had not needed any such help, when as a Ladywood councillor Neville had lead the lobbying for Birmingham to expand into the rural districts surrounding  it  in every direction except to the west – where the Black Country lay. This 1911 Birmingham boundary extension assumed future housing estates, the case for which he led the elaboration of – on the very eve of the 1914 war.

This experience in Birmingham gave him a status as a housing expert when he got to Parliament to represent Ladywood in 1918. Conservatives had tended to favour property tax incentives to encourage building, but Neville leaned towards government subsidy. It was no coincidence that subsidy for both private and council house building were introduced by Neville’s brother, when he was chancellor in 1919 (and his deputy was Stanley Baldwin). And this subsidy was rapidly taken up by Birmingham builders.

Manchester, however, was not yet going to be contributing to the profits of firms the likes of Kenricks.  Areas reliant upon textiles and other depressed industries could not afford building without even further subsidy. Led by Manchester, these councils sought an improved subsidy for building council houses in 1923. Baldwin was then chancellor, which ensured Neville ( as Health Minister) had a free enough hand to cut them a better deal. And on this basis, Manchester built out to the south into Wythenshaw.  Orders came Birmingham’s way – as a simple matter of trade association quota.

SmithWhile some might have been wittering on about the wonders worked by the ‘invisible hand’ of the free market, hands were visible reaching down to co-ordinate production, strategic subsidy and government policy – if one knew where to look. This would not be lost on the big banks – who were generous with overdrafts to the businesses so close to Downing St. There was also a Kenrick on the board of Lloyds Bank during those years. So credit got co-ordinated too.

Such strategic planning has more in common with the political economy of China in recent decades, then with the visions of Adam Smith and his invisible hand.  And it is worth bearing this in mind when one examines a further twist in this story.

Confronting the Brick interests

The interwar expansion of the English suburbs was based on bricks rather thanbrickwork any other building material.  And brick is so energy inefficient that it is now a major challenge for today’s suburban life. However, the brick economy was in the 1920s a major drag on the housing boom. Labour tended to blame profiteering on the part of brick manufacturers, while the conservatives tended to blame the bricklayer’s monopoly in the face of the laboriousness of  bricklaying.  But – whichever – this was hampering the flow of Birmingham’s supplies to a housing boom and the rewards.

However, in the late 1920s the brick industry came to have to accept less favourable terms.  It had been during a Labour interlude in office, that their housing minister, John Wheatley began a review of whether new building methods could speed up the delivery of cheap popular housing.  But when Neville got back into the ministerial driving seat he pushed this debate even further.

Houses built from bigger concrete ‘breeze blocks’ were encouraged. But even more radical options were ‘promoted’ by Neville.  He even fostered a scheme to use elements of the Glasgow shipbuilding industry to mass produce the panels for steel bungalows. Pushing such discussion so far, worked its effect on the brick interests, and delivered more profit thereafter for Birmingham than for Glasgow.

Drawing the right/wrong lessons

Since Chamberlain was displaced from power in 1940, the only city that Heseltine   has been able to tug so regularly upon the levers of power has been the ‘City of London’.  The lessons that can be drawn from the rise and fall of Birmingham are legion. However, our purpose here is to weigh up the agenda that Lord Heseltine has been pressing.

Heseltine began life as a ‘buy to let’  landlord who used his profits to become an advertiser/publisher. After going into politics he was a sort of Viceroy for Liverpool for Mrs Thatcher, whom he later sought to replace with himself. Liverpool did build its position on slavery and what went with it. Maybe that is where he gets his notion of a bucaneer capitalism.  But that label also fits himself. And fits him better than it does any inland city, and certainly better than Birmingham.

Birmingham’s experience would really highlight notions of planning, local committment, addressing social need ….

Andrew Lydon

An analysis of one of our rival cities can be found here

 

 

 

American localisers call for new economic forms to support an emerging new economy

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New Econ Institute logo.

As ‘our grand economic experiment’ has demonstrably failed to serve people and planet, New Economics members in America have begun to readjust and re-experiment. Citizens organized in neighbourhoods, cities, and small towns, are working together to create new economic forms that support an emerging new economy. 

PBS NewsHour has aired a report on BerkShares, a local currency in the Berkshire region of Massachusetts that helps citizens identify and engage with independent local businesses that are the backbone of their local economy. In September, BerkShares will celebrate its 7th Anniversary.

Gar Alperovitz, who will speak at another event, is a spokesperson for new enterprises incorporating worker ownership and management in their structure, rebalancing priorities by serving the interests of workers and their place-based communities over the interests of global capital. In so doing, they are modelling characteristics of the future American economy—distinctive for being neither corporate capitalism nor state socialism.

Judy Wicks, leading another event, is active in the movement for the renewal of local economies and the promotion of diversity among the small businesses that make up those economies. Her White Dog Café taught her how to build alliances of mutual support. She used those lessons to shape the principles of Business Alliance for Local Living Economies (BALLE).

Two of the initiatives listed caught the writer’s eye:

agrarian trust logoThe Agrarian Trust helps sustainable next-generation farmers access land. Land access is a challenge for beginning farmers, particularly those coming from a non-agricultural background as land costs are at an all-time historical high as a result of real estate values, speculator/ investment pressure, high crop prices. Good legal and financial counsel, affordable credit for capitalization, affordable land, and housing nearby the farm.

CLT logoThe central principle motivating the work of the Community Land Trust is that homes, barns, fences, gardens, and all things done with or on the land should be owned by individuals, but the land itself is a limited community resource that should be owned by the community as a whole. The CLT makes possible the community ownership of land.

The New Economics message ends:

At this critical juncture in the re-visualizing of the American economy, alliances are forming. Single-issue organizing is a thing of the past. We need to celebrate and leverage transformation wherever it is occurring, region by region, neighborhood by neighborhood, green business by green business, grassroots group by grassroots group. Much is at stake”.

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Will the end of traditional growth paths lead to ‘cosmopolitan localism’ ?

lessnet headerSteve Schofield, whose work in Bradford was covered on this blog some time ago, focusses on the real security challenge of the 21st century caused by resource depletion and climate change.

The evolution of the international system was driven by the ambitions of the larger industrial states, defined by elite, corporate groups that control central government policy and requiring access to the energy supplies, raw materials and markets  considered vital to their interests.

There will be an extremely dangerous period in which some larger states implode through social and political breakdown, experienced as the end of traditional growth paths and compounded by the use of external military power which is unable to promote real security.

Viable alternatives when the globalised economy enters its terminal phase

The economic momentum that led to the creation of larger states is being reversed and the international system will experience fundamental restructuring on a scale not seen since the early days of the industrial revolution.

It is essential to start planning now for a successful transition from imperialism to local security.

Schofield predicts that smaller countries, or autonomous regions of larger countries  will be able to provide better prospects for economic and environmental security by focusing their investment on local energy, food and other essential production.

As the crisis deepens, the UK could be the first localising state by taking steps such as:

  • ending its military subordination to the United States, closing all US bases,
  • cancelling its armament programmes for long-range power projection,
  • make substantial savings from arms expenditures to help support investment meeting local security needs for energy, food, housing and transportation.

An international system of cosmopolitan localism could emerge from this fundamental economic restructuring, holding out the prospect of resolving the new security challenges from resource depletion and climate change, while  building a long-term peace.

Read the whole article here: http://www.lessnet.co.uk/security/security1.html

Steve Schofield is ’one of the foremost experts on demilitarisation and the conversion of military resources to civilian use’, now devoting more time to community development in Bradford.

 

 

West Midlands MEP advocates the ‘Green Deal’ for social housing

phillip bennion2In a newsletter this week (not yet available on his website) Local Euro MP Phil Bennion expresses the hope that the government’s ‘Green Deal’ will be more widely extended to help people in rented social housing:

“Millions of homes in the UK do not have full double-glazing. More than half do not have enough insulation or an efficient condensing boiler. Most do not even have proper thermostats. The Green Deal will make a difference . . . The next step is to help tenants in social housing cut their bills too, using a similar approach”.

green deal defra logoPhil Bennion pointed out that not only could tenants facing growing fuel poverty be made more comfortable and enabled to cut their bills, but that there would be increased employment opportunities for those carrying out energy efficiency upgrades. He continued:

“In the European Parliament’s Employment committee, I’m working on a report on the financial pressure facing tenants in social housing. The big worry is fuel poverty, with soaring energy bills squeezing budgets for food and other basic essentials.

“Rolling out the Green Deal approach to social housing would be tricky, but it would help tackle fuel poverty where the need is greatest. In the West Midlands, many housing associations are already making the most of similar schemes (Ed. see Tipton and Walsall).

“I want to see the EU keep up the pressure so governments and local authorities are given the tools to help tenants in social housing to cut their bills too. The process needs to be as practical and accessible as possible.”

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encraft logoOn the website of Encraft, the environmental engineering firm which prepared a full feasibility study for the city, working in partnership with Localise West Midlands, we read that the eventual aim of Birmingham’s Green Deal project is to retrofit over 14,000 private homes, small businesses and social housing units across Birmingham with the full range of energy efficiency and microgeneration technologies.

birmingham energy savers3An LWM consultant hopes that Birmingham Energy Savers* will indeed be given ‘the tools’ it needs to engage social housing providers with the Green Deal and to make it financially viable for them to improve their housing stock and reduce fuel poverty.

 

* website currently ‘under development’